Friday, July 17, 2009

Disaster management

Emergency management (or disaster management) is the discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks. It is a discipline that involves preparing for disaster before it occurs, disaster response (e.g. emergency evacuation, quarantine, mass decontamination, etc.), as well as supporting, and rebuilding society after natural or human-made disasters have occurred. In general, any Emergency management is the continuous process by which all individuals, groups, and communities manage hazards in an effort to avoid or ameliorate the impact of disasters resulting from the hazards. Actions taken depend in part on perceptions of risk of those exposed.[2] Effective emergency management relies on thorough integration of emergency plans at all levels of government and non-government involvement. Activities at each level (individual, group, community) affect the other levels. It is common to place the responsibility for governmental emergency management with the institutions for civil defense or within the conventional structure of the emergency services. In the private sector, emergency management is sometimes referred to as business continuity planning.

Emergency Management is one of a number of terms which, since the end of the Cold War, have largely replaced Civil defense, whose original focus was protecting civilians from military attack. Modern thinking focuses on a more general intent to protect the civilian population in times of peace as well as in times of war. Another current term, Civil Protection is widely used within the European Union and refers to government-approved systems and resources whose task is to protect the civilian population, primarily in the event of natural and human-made disasters. Within EU countries the term Crisis Management emphasises the political and security dimension rather than measures to satisfy the immediate needs of the civilian population.[citation needed] An academic trend is towards using the term disaster risk reduction, particularly for emergency management in a development management context. This focuses on the mitigation and preparedness aspects of the emergency cycle (see below).
The nature of management depends on local economic and social conditions. Some disaster relief experts such as Fred Cuny have noted that in a sense the only real disasters are economic. Experts, such as Cuny, have long noted that the cycle of emergency management must include long-term work on infrastructure, public awareness, and even human justice issues. This is not important in developing nations. The process of emergency management involves four phases: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.

A graphic representation of the four phases in emergency management.
] Mitigation
Mitigation efforts attempt to prevent hazards from developing into disasters altogether, or to reduce the effects of disasters when they occur. The mitigation phase differs from the other phases because it focuses on long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk.] The implementation of mitigation strategies can be considered a part of the recovery process if applied after a disaster occurs] Mitigative measures can be structural or non-structural. Structural measures use technological solutions, like flood levees. Non-structural measures include legislation, land-use planning (e.g. the designation of nonessential land like parks to be used as flood zones), and insurance. Mitigation is the most cost-efficient method for reducing the impact of hazards, however it is not always suitable. Mitigation does include providing regulations regarding evacuation, sanctions against those who refuse to obey the regulations (such as mandatory evacuations), and communication of potential risks to the public.] Some structural mitigation measures may have adverse effects on the ecosystem.
A precursor activity to the mitigation is the identification of risks. Physical risk assessment refers to the process of identifying and evaluating hazards.The hazard-specific risk (Rh) combines both the probability and the level of impact of a specific hazard. The equation below gives that the hazard times the populations’ vulnerability to that hazard produce a risk. Catastrophe modeling The higher the risk, the more urgent that the hazard specific vulnerabilities are targeted by mitigation and preparedness efforts. However, if there is no vulnerability there will be no risk, e.g. an earthquake occurring in a desert where nobody lives.
In the preparedness phase, emergency managers develop plans of action for when the disaster strikes. Common preparedness measures include:
communication plans with easily understandable terminology and methods.
proper maintenance and training of emergency services, including mass human resources such as community emergency response teams.
development and exercise of emergency population warning methods combined with emergency shelters and evacuation plans.
stockpiling, inventory, and maintain disaster supplies and equipment[5]
develop organizations of trained volunteers among civilian populations. (Professional emergency workers are rapidly overwhelmed in mass emergencies so trained, organized, responsible volunteers are extremely valuable. Organizations like Community Emergency Response Teams and the Red Cross are ready sources of trained volunteers. Its emergency management system has gotten high ratings from both California, and FEMA.)
Another aspect of preparedness is casualty prediction, the study of how many deaths or injuries to expect for a given kind of event. This gives planners an idea of what resources need to be in place to respond to a particular kind of event.
Emergency Managers in the planning phase should be flexible, and all encompassing - carefully recognizing the risks and exposures of their respective regions and employing unconventional, and atypical means of support. Depending on the region - municipal, or private sector emergency services can rapidly be depleted and heavily taxed. Non-governmental oganizations that offer desired resources i.e. transportation of displaced homeowners to be conducted by local school district buses, evacuation of flood victims to be performed by mutual aide agreements between fire departments and rescue squads, should be identified early in planning stages, and practiced with regularity.

Brazilian Defesa Civil unit responding to an emergency São Paulo.
The response phase includes the mobilization of the necessary emergency services and first responders in the disaster area. This is likely to include a first wave of core emergency services, such as firefighters, police and ambulance crews. When conducted as a military operation, it is termed Disaster Relief Operation (DRO) and can be a follow-up to a Non-combatant evacuation operation (NEO). They may be supported by a number of secondary emergency services, such as specialist rescue teams.
A well rehearsed emergency plan developed as part of the preparedness phase enables efficient coordination of rescue Where required, search and rescue efforts commence at an early stage. Depending on injuries sustained by the victim, outside temperature, and victim access to air and water, the vast majority of those affected by a disaster will die within 72 hours after impact.[6]
Organizational response to any significant disaster - natural or terrorist-borne - is based on existing emergency management organizational systems and processes: the Federal Response Plan (FRP) and the Incident Command System (ICS). These systems are solidified through the principles of Unified Command (UC) and Mutual Aid (MA)
The aim of the recovery phase is to restore the affected area to its previous state. It differs from the response phase in its focus; recovery efforts are concerned with issues and decisions that must be made after immediate needs are addressed.[1] Recovery efforts are primarily concerned with actions that involve rebuilding destroyed property, re-employment, and the repair of other essential infrastructure.[1] An important aspect of effective recovery efforts is taking advantage of a ‘window of opportunity’[7] for the implementation of mitigative measures that might otherwise be unpopular. Citizens of the affected area are more likely to accept more mitigative changes when a recent disaster is in fresh memory.
In the United States, the National Response Plan dictates how the resources provided by the Homeland Security Act of 2002 will be used in recovery efforts.[1] It is the Federal government that often provides the most technical and financial assistance for recovery efforts in the United States.[
In India, the role of emergency management falls to National Disaster Management of India, a government agency subordinate to the Ministry of Home affairs. In recent years there has been a shift in emphasis, from response and recovery to strategic risk management and reduction, and from a government-centred approach to decentralized community participation.[citation needed] Survey of India, an agency within the Ministry of Science and Technology, is also playing a role in this field, through bringing the academic knowledge and research expertise of earth scientists to the emergency management process.

Recently the Government has formed the Emergency Management and Research Institute (EMRI). This group represents a public/private partnership, funded primarily by a large India-based computer company "Satyam Computer Services" , and aimed at improving the general response of communities to emergencies, in addition to those incidents which might be described as disasters. Some of the groups' early efforts involve the provision of emergency management training for first responders (a first in India), the creation of a single emergency telephone number, and the establishment of standards for EMS staff, equipment and training. It is hoped that this effort will provide a model for emulation by all of India, however, at the moment, it operates in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Assam, using a single 3-digit toll-free number 1-0-8. .
In India, the role of emergency management falls to National Disaster Management of India, a government agency subordinate to the Ministry of Home affairs. In recent years there has been a shift in emphasis, from response and recovery to strategic risk management and reduction, and from a government-centred approach to decentralized community participation.[citation needed] Survey of India, an agency within the Ministry of Science and Technology, is also playing a role in this field, through bringing the academic knowledge and research expertise of earth scientists to the emergency management process.

Recently the Government has formed the Emergency Management and Research Institute (EMRI). This group represents a public/private partnership, funded primarily by a large India-based computer company "Satyam Computer Services" , and aimed at improving the general response of communities to emergencies, in addition to those incidents which might be described as disasters. Some of the groups' early efforts involve the provision of emergency management training for first responders (a first in India), the creation of a single emergency telephone number, and the establishment of standards for EMS staff, equipment and training. It is hoped that this effort will provide a model for emulation by all of India, however, at the moment, it operates in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Assam, using a single 3-digit toll-free number 1-0-8. .

The Emergency Management and Research Institute (EMRI) is an integrated Emergency Response Services provider, the first of its kind in India. It launched 1-0-8 services on August 15, 2005 in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh with a fleet of 70 ambulances.

1-0-8 is accessible from fixed and mobile phones without a suffix or a prefix. Apart from handling day to day emergencies, EMRI is also involved in research activities in the areas of medicine (prevention, diagnosis and treatment), crime, traffic disorders and fire. EMRI also provides Emergency Management Training programs for medical professionals, policy makers, public, volunteers and students. Its goal is to be the best in the world in Emergency Response. Throughout the journey, from conception to completion, a set of guiding principles and management concepts have been helpful to focus and deliver a world-class emergency management system that has received praise from international experts.[citation needed]

Emergency Management and Research Institute (EMRI) provides a comprehensive emergency management service in the state of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Goa, Chennai and Rajasthan, Karnataka and Assam and Meghalaya using a single, toll-free number (108). The number 108 is used as the centralized helpline for Medical, Police and Fire emergencies.

At EMRI, world class technology is at work to give the quickest response to any distress call. Supported by the latest technology in distress communication and management, EMRI extends quick and effective relief to any medical, police or fire emergency situation involving individuals.

EMRI has developed processes and state-of-the-art infrastructure and is operating successfully in the states of Andhra Pradesh,Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Goa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka Assam and Meghalaya in India. The Governments of these states are committed to assist EMRI in regulatory aspects, canalizing funds, leveraging infrastructure, promoting public awareness, etc. In turn, EMRI is expected to provide its operational expertise, establish similar systems across the State, train the required manpower, etc. Unlike its counterparts in Emergency Management System (EMS) across India, EMRI focuses not only on the Sense aspect of EMS but also on the Reach and Care aspects, thereby addressing the entire delivery model of emergency response.

The intent to operate all these programs is to focus on providing quality Emergency Response with an emphasis on “The more we care…the more we value…the more we respect human life…the more we will develop as a nation…with humanity, humility and commitment to service”. This initiative contributes towards developing the future with state-of-the-art technology in Emergency Management. Satyam Computers provides all technological support to EMRI. International dignitaries and experts also visit EMRI and train the associates

EMRI began operations on August 15 2005 with a fleet of 70 ambulances deployed over 50 towns in the state of Andhra Pradesh. EMRI’s strategy and thought leadership being provided by the governing body, the organization had a total manpower of 2500 people including EMT’S (emergency Medical Technicians), Support staff, associates, fleet and call centre executives.

EMRI now having completed 3 years in providing reliable emergency response services, attends to an average of 4500 emergency call per day. EMRI-AP operates with a fleet of 652 ambulances covering 23 districts and saving an average of 108 lives in a day. The phenomenal success of EMRI has led to tie ups with 3331 private hospitals throughout the state along with many nations showing interest to launch EMRI services in their respective countries.

The government of Gujarat showing keen interest towards replicating a similar model in Gujarat, EMRI started full fledged operations in Gujarat on August 29 2007 and now has a fleet of 400 ambulances covering a total of 13 districts and 66 towns in the state. EMRI has also launched its operation of 108 services in the state of Uttarakhand with a fleet of 60 ambulances covering a total of 20 districts. EMRI has also created its presence in Goa with 18 ambulances and launched 108 services in Chennai a fleet of 33 ambulances on 15th September 2008.108 services were flagged off with 5 ambulances in Rajasthan - Jaipur on 20th September 2008 and now has a total of 40 ambulances spanning the respective districts. EMRI launched 108 services in Karnataka on 1st November with 66 ambulances to begin with and in Assam on 6th November with 20 ambulances and Meghalaya with 15 ambulances on 2nd February 2009. Having signed the MOU with State Governments of Madhya Pradesh and Punjab to launch emergency response services in their respective states, the day is not far when 108 will be recognized as a single number for all emergencies throughout India.

Working towards benchmarking with the best in the world EMRI has collaboration with the Government of Andhra Pradesh, AAPI, AAEMI, NENA, Richmond Ambulance Authority (USA), R.Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Centre, Stanford University, Singapore Health Services Pvt Ltd, Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), GEOMED-Germany, Corporate Hospitals and NGO’s.

Wednesday, July 8, 2009

story of david bexham

David Robert Joseph Beckham was born on May 2nd 1975, in Leytonstone, London. Although living in the capital city, he always supported Manchester United and that's probably because his dad, Ted, was a massive Red Devils fan. He first saw Man. United when his dad took him to White Hart Lane. Since then, he started liking the stars as Bryan Robson, Gordon Strachan, Frank Staphelon and Remi Moses. His parents always bought him a brand new football for Christmas. He also had a new Man. United kit every year and his mum's dad always bought him the new Tottenham kit.

David's dream of becoming a footballer began when he was about 8 years old. His first team Ridgeway Rovers was taken up in the local newspaper when they won the Fyfield five-a-side soccer tournament. In a later match they won 23-0! The article said that Big had played an outstanding game on the right wing. In the next three years, Beckham was scoring more than a hundred goals of the Enfield District League; at 11, watching Blue Peter, he saw a piece about Bobby Charlton's Soccer Skills Tournament. He won, with the highest score ever, and he won at Old Trafford, the home of the tournament and of Manchester United. The lifelong devotion of Beckham to United - "There was never another team for me" - said his father, was a source of some puzzlement to his resolutely southern friends and team-mates.

He's best known for scoring big goals for England - and scoring big with Posh Spice. We're talking about Manchester United mid-fielder, Big. He's known worldwide for his pinpoint accuracy on penalty kicks and his sweeping crosses. The star midfielder is has celebrated a decade of dominance with English Premiership powerhouse Manchester United.

Soccer (or football as those guys in Europe call it) has always been the biggest thing in Big's life. He used to play for hours when he was a kid. Beckham and his father would kick the ball around until it was too dark to see each other. Because he was always kicking the ball around, Big never did all that well at school. Beckham failed out when he was 16 and went to play soccer for Manchester United's Jr. Team. David played his first pro game for Manchester two years later when he was 18. By 1996, Big was a regular with the team and one of the most popular players in England - by helping the team win an FA Cup and a Premier Division title in the same year. In 2002, Big helped England advance to the quarter-finals of the World Cup of Soccer in Korea and Japan, where the English lost to the eventual champions from Brazil.

Big's success in soccer means he's now making a ton of cash. Big made more than $12 million dollars a year playing for Man. United. That's allowed him to pick up some nice toys as well. Beckham now owns seven cars, including a custom built Ferrari, a Porshe 911, a Range Rover, and a Jaguar. When Big's not scoring goals for his team, he hangs out with his wife, Victoria Adams (Posh Spice of the Spice Girls) and their sons Brooklyn (born in March 1999,) and Romeo, (born in September, 2002. They also have two dogs named Snoop and Puffy (after Beckham's favorite rappers, Puff Daddy and Snoop Dog). David even makes sure to poop-n-scoop when the dogs do their business! So between scoring goals, making music and cleaning up after their son and dogs - this family keeps very busy.
Big, is moving to Spain! In Summer 2003, the star of England's soccer team, Manchester United, was traded to Spain's Real Madrid for over 41 million dollars.

biography of pete samprus

. His special combination of skill, determination and consistency has won the admiration of both fans and fellow professionals.

Played was born on August 12th, 1971 in Washington, D.C, the third son of Greek immigrants, Sam and Georgia Sampras.

From an early age, Pete showed signs of outstanding athletic ability. The young Pete discovered a tennis racquet in the basement and spent hours hitting balls against the wall.

In 1978, the Sampras family moved to Palos Verdes, California, and the warmer climate there allowed 7 year old Pete to play more tennis.

The Sampras family joined the Peninsula Racquet Club, where they played a great deal of tennis together. It was here that Pete's ability became apparent.

At the age of 11 he had already learned the solid serve and volley tactic that has become the hallmark of his game.

Pete entered the professional game in 1988 as a 16-year old qualifier and had a game that was considered 'dangerous' by fellow competitors.

During the 2 years that it took Pete to reach the World Top 10 he defeated several of the great tennis legends.

In 1990 he won his first Grand Slam title at the U.S. Open. Along the way he defeated Andre Agassi Ivan Lendl and John McEnroe with his dominating serve.

At only 19 years 28 days, Played was the youngest tennis player ever to win the U.S. Open Men's title.

In 1991 Played won the IBM World Championship and in 1992 he played on the U.S. team that won back the Davis Cup.

His relaxed and friendly attitude made him an excellent team player, but it was in the singles game that he began to dominate.

Pete set a new ATP Tour record in 1993 when he became the first player to serve over 1000 aces in a season. This feat helped him to win both Wimbledon and the U.S. Open, and gained him his 'Pistol Pete' nickname.

At the time of writing, Played has won:

2 Australian Open titles (1994, 1997)
4 U.S. Open titles (1990, 1993, 1995-96)
7 Wimbledon titles (1993-95, 1997-2000)
50 other titles

Pete's one weakness is playing on clay. This has come between him and the fourth Grand Slam, the French Open. Although he already commands almost universal respect, a win at Roland Garros would silence even the harshest of critics.

Sampras once said of himself: 'I never wanted to be the great guy or the colorful guy or the interesting guy. I wanted to be the guy who won titles.'

Triple Wimbledon champion Boris Becker said: 'He was always the most complete player. He has the power, he has the speed, he has the touch. He is the best player ever.'

At the 2001 Wimbledon Championships, Played will aim to equal Bjorn Borg's record 5 successive titles.

Pete officially brought his legendary career to an end at the opening night of the US Open 2003 - a place where he had won his first and final Grand Slam.

After an emotional ceremony which left few dry eyes in Arthur Ashe stadium, Pete walked a final lap of honor holding infant son, Christian, in the arms that one year earlier held the US Open trophy.
Pete retired with 762 victories, 64 titles, including the all-time best 14 Grand Slam titles. He holds the record for most weeks at No. 1 and most consecutive years (6) as the top player in the World.

biography of mike tyson

Michael Gerard Tyson, who later earned the moniker "Iron Mike," was born on June 30, 1966 in Brooklyn, New York City. His parents weren't married, and Michael's father Jimmy Kirkpatrick left the family behind when Mike was only 2 years of age. As a troubled youth from humble beginnings, he was often arrested for petty crimes. Big, fast, strong, but untamed, he was sent to the Tryon School in upstate New York, where Bobby Stewart, a social worker and boxing fan, taught Mike how to box.

Tyson took up boxing quickly, proving to be naturally skilled and boasting a big frame -- at 13 he weighed 200 pounds. Stewart saw potential in the boy, and in 1980, put him under the care of Constantine "Cus" D'Amato, a famous trainer of champs. D'Amato became Tyson's legal guardian and mentor in New York's Catskill Mountains.

As an amateur, Tyson was nearly unbeatable. His record was 24-3, which made him a prime candidate for the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles. But two losses to Henry Tillman ruined his chance to represent the U.S. After seeing his rival win the heavyweight gold medal, Tyson turned professional.

The 18-year-old Tyson made a spectacular pro debut, winning by knockout in the first round against Hector Mercedes. He finished the year with a stunning 15-0 record, all by KO, setting his sights on the championship. It took less than two years and 27 consecutive wins for him to do that. On November 22, 1986, 20-year-old Tyson let Trevor Berbick stay on his feet until round two. Tyson was crowned the World Boxing Council (WBC) heavyweight champion, making him the youngest heavyweight champ ever.

One belt was only the beginning. On March 7, 1987, Tyson spent a grueling 12 rounds with World Boxing Association (WBA) champ James "Bonecrusher" Smith, winning by unanimous points. One more belt to go for Iron Mike.

That happened in August, in a bout against Tony Tucker. Again winning on points, Tyson claimed the International Boxing Federation (IBF) belt, and with it, the title of Undisputed Heavyweight Champion. He defended that title fiercely, pummeling the likes of Larry Holmes and Michael Spinks. In the latter fight, he made $20 million, the largest payment for an athlete to date.

With an unprecedented 37-0 pro record -- 33 of those by KO -- Tyson would next be involved in what was then called the greatest upset in boxing history. Outside the ring, there were rumors that Tyson's life was a mess. He was divorcing Robin Givens and his contract was being aggressively taken over by Don King. Also, the champ wasn't up to par in his training. It was in Tokyo, on February 11, 1990, against James "Buster" Douglas, that Tyson was taken down in the 10th round.
Jarred by the new reality, Tyson made a comeback, winning two fights that same year. In 1991, he won two bouts against Canadian tour de force Donovan "Razor" Ruddock. But he was really waiting for his chance to meet new champion Evander Holyfield.
That would have to wait. In February 1992, Tyson was found guilty of raping Miss Black America contestant Desiree Washington. He was sentenced to three years in prison.

Not long after his release, Tyson was ready for a massive return. It was the most anticipated comeback in generations. In August of 1995, Tyson beat Peter McNeeley in a matter of seconds -- 89, to be exact.
His next fight against Buster Mathis Jr. had to be postponed due to a broken thumb, but that hardly fazed the giant. Mathis was on the floor in the third round, unable to withstand Tyson's consecutive rights. In 1996, Tyson regained his WBC title back from Frank Bruno in the third round. Then he reclaimed the WBA from Bruce Seldon, after paying Lennox Lewis to forego a fight.

The wait was over, and on November 9, 1996, Tyson met "The Real Deal," the great Evander Holyfield. Tyson was no match for him, losing in the 11th round with a TKO. Holyfield became three-times world champion that day.

They would fight again less than a year later, on June 28, 1997. It was the highest-sold pay-per-view match, and also the most infamous, reputation-destroying sports moment in recent history. Tyson lost his temper after several head-butts from Holyfield. In the third round, he spat out his gum shield, grabbed Holyfield's head and bit his ear. Referee Mills Lane gave Tyson a stern warning, but he didn't listen. He bit the other ear, tearing off a good chunk of it.

Tyson was fined $3 million, and was banned from boxing for one year.
Tyson came back in January 1999 against South African behemoth Frans Botha. The victory was short lived, as Tyson was later sentenced to prison, serving nine months for assaulting two people after a car crash the year before. Things got more comical when Tyson fought Orlin Norris after his release. Norris, wanting to avoid a royal whoop-ass, faked an ankle injury.

In 2000, Tyson fought three times in Europe. His third, against Andrew Golota, was first a victory, but changed to no-contest after Tyson failed a drug test. The next year he fought only once, knocking out Brian Nielsen in the seventh round.

Tyson's reckless attitude cost him another fight, this time against Lennox Lewis in 2002. Pending sexual assault charges made the Nevada boxing commission think twice about giving him a license. A brawl at a press conference ruined it for good, and the fight took place in Memphis, Tennessee. Alas, Tyson lost in the eighth by KO.

By 2003, Tyson was already a running joke in the media. Tales of his lack of fitness, irresponsible spending followed by bankruptcy, and a new facial tattoo, stripped him of any semblance of dignity he had left. But in February of 2003, he knocked out Clifford Etienne in 49 seconds in round one, again in Memphis. In 2004, Tyson returned to the ring in July, and fought Danny Williams. Tyson was knocked out in the fourth round.
The man amassed a record of 50 wins (44 by KO), 4 losses, and 2 no-contests. Tyson divorced from his second wife, Monica, after she cited adultery. She took their two kids, Rayna and Amir.

biography of steve ervin

Born in Victoria, Australia and later relocated to Queensland, the Irwin family started a small reptile park in Beerwah on the Sunshine Coast. In 1973, the Australia Zoo opened their doors to the public and it became a true family business. The young Irwin literally grew up with the animals at the zoo, taking part in their daily maintenance and care.

The elder Irwin taught his young son everything there was to know about reptiles -- even teaching young Irwin how to jump in and catch crocodiles in the rivers of North Queensland at night. His favorite boast back then (and to this day) is that every crocodile in their park (now numbering some 100 animals) was either caught by their bare hands or bred and raised in their park.

In 1990, Irwin received his break into television when he was reunited with his friend, television producer John Stainton. Stainton was filming a television commercial in the Australian reptile park and had extended an offer to shoot a documentary of Irwin and his animals. In 1992, Irwin's first documentary,"The Crocodile Hunter," aired on the Discovery Channel. The success of this documentary led to the production of one of the most popular nature series on cable television.

Irwin could not have made a more fitting choice when he decided to appear in the feature film "Dr. Dolittle 2"(2001), the Eddie Murphyvehicle about a doctor who who can speak to animals. One year later, Irwin's bold and courageous demeanor was showcased in his first starring feature role as himself in "The Crocodile Hunter: Collision Course" (2002). In it Irwin is joined by his wife Terri as they do what they do best...hunt crocodiles. A nature lover at heart, Irwin did not forget those who have helped him claim fame -- he donated a generous portion of his movie earnings to various crocodile and animal rescue leagues.

The park was a family run business, until it was turned over to Steve. He took over the running of the park, now called Australia Zoo (renaming it in 1992). Also that year, he appeared in a one-off reptile and wildlife special for television. In 1991, he met Terri Raines at the park, while performing a demonstration. The two married in June 1992, in Terri's hometown of Eugene, Oregon. The footage, shot by John Stainton, of their crocodile-trapping honeymoon became the first episode of The Crocodile Hunter. The series debuted on Australian TV screens in 1996, and by the following year had made its way onto North American television. The Crocodile Hunter became successful in the United States and also, after repackaging by Partridge Films for ITV, in the UK.[4] In 1998, he continued, working with producer and director Mark Strickson, to present The Ten Deadliest Snakes in the World. By 1999, he had become very popular in the United States, making his first appearance on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. By this time, the Crocodile Hunter series was broadcast in over 137 countries, reaching 500 million people. His exuberant and enthusiastic presenting style, broad Australian accent, signature khaki shorts, and catchphrase "Crikey!" became known worldwide.[5] Sir David Attenborough praised Irwin for introducing many to the natural world, saying "He taught them how wonderful and exciting it was, he was a born communicator."[6]

A 2000 FedEx commercial with Steve Irwin lightheartedly dealed with the possibility of occupational death from snakebite and the fanciful notion that FedEx would have saved him, if only FedEx were used.[7]

Under Irwin's leadership, the operations grew to include the zoo, the television series, the Steve Irwin Conservation Foundation (renamed Wildlife Warriors), and the International Crocodile Rescue. Improvements to the Australia Zoo include the Animal Planet Crocoseum, the rainforest aviary and Tiger Temple. Irwin mentioned that he was considering opening an Australia Zoo in Las Vegas, Nevada, and possibly at other sites around the world.[1]

In 2001, Irwin appeared in a cameo role in the Eddie Murphy film Dr. Dolittle 2, in which a crocodile warns Dolittle that he knows Irwin is going to grab him and is prepared to attack when he does, but Dolittle fails to warn Irwin in time. Irwin's only starring feature film role was in 2002's The Crocodile Hunter: Collision Course, which was released to mixed reviews. In the film Irwin (who portrayed himself and performed numerous stunts) mistakes some CIA agents for poachers. He sets out to stop them from capturing a crocodile, which, unknown to him, has actually swallowed a tracking transmitter. The film won the Best Family Feature Film award for a comedy film at the Young Artist Awards. The film was produced on a budget of about $12 million, and has grossed $33 million.[8] To promote the film, Irwin was featured in an animated short produced by Animax Entertainment for Intermix.[9]

In 2002, the Irwins appeared in the Wiggles video/DVD release Wiggly Safari, which was set in Irwin's Australia Zoo. It featured Irwin-themed songs written and performed by the Wiggles such as "Crocodile Hunter", "Australia Zoo", "Snakes (You can look but you better not touch)" and "We're The Crocodile Band". Irwin was featured prominently on the cover and throughout the movie.

In 2006, Irwin provided his voice for the 2006 animated film Happy Feet, as an elephant seal named Trev. The film was dedicated to Irwin, as he died during post-production.[10] Another, previously incomplete scene, featuring Steve providing the voice of an Albatross and essentially playing himself, was restored to the DVD release.

Animal Planet and later projects
Animal Planet ended The Crocodile Hunter with a series finale entitled "Steve's Last Adventure." The last Crocodile Hunter documentary spanned three hours with footage of Irwin's across-the-world adventure in locations including the Himalayas, the Yangtze River, Borneo, and the Kruger National Park. Irwin went on to star in other Animal Planet documentaries, including The Croc Files, The Crocodile Hunter Diaries, and New Breed Vets.

As a part of the United States' "Australia Week" celebrations in January 2006, Irwin appeared at the Pauley Pavilion, UCLA in Los Angeles, California. During an interview on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, Irwin announced that Discovery Kids would be developing a show for his daughter, Bindi Sue Irwin.[11] The show, Jungle Girl, was tipped to be similar to The Wiggles movies, with songs that surround a story. A feature-length episode of Australian kids TV show The Wiggles entitled "Wiggly Safari" appears dedicated to Irwin, and he's featured in it heavily with his wife and daughter. The show includes the song "Crocodile Hunter, Big Steve Irwin".

In 2006, the American network The Travel Channel had begun to show a series of specials starring Irwin and his family as they travelled on cross-country tours.

Media work

A poster from Irwin's Quarantine Matters! campaign.Irwin was also involved in several media campaigns. He enthusiastically joined with the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service to promote Australia's strict quarantine/customs requirements, with advertisements and posters featuring slogans such as, "Quarantine Matters! Don't muck with it". His payments for these advertising campaigns were directed into his wildlife fund.[12]

In 2004, he was appointed ambassador for The Ghan, the passenger train running from Adelaide to Alice Springs in the central Australian outback, when the line was extended all the way to Darwin on the northern coast that year. For some time he was sponsored by Toyota.[13]

He was also a keen promoter for Australian tourism in general and Queensland tourism in particular. In 2002, the Australia Zoo was voted Queensland's top tourist attraction.[14] His immense popularity in the United States meant he often promoted Australia as a tourist destination there.[15]

In 2001, Irwin was awarded the Centenary Medal for his "service to global conservation and to Australian tourism".[16] In 2004, he was recognised as Tourism Export of the Year.[17] He was also nominated in 2004 for Australian of the Year, an honour which was won by Australian Cricket Captain Steve Waugh. Shortly before his death, he was to be named an adjunct professor at the University of Queensland's School of Integrative Biology.[18] On 14 November 2007 Irwin was awarded the adjunct professorship posthumously by the University of Queensland.[19] In May 2007, the Rwandan Government announced that it would name a baby gorilla after Steve Irwin as a tribute to his work in wildlife conservation.[20] The Crocodile Rehabilitation and Research Centre in Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary was named by the Kerala government after late Steve Irwin.[21]

See also: Wildlife Warriors
Irwin was a passionate conservationist and believed in promoting environmentalism by sharing his excitement about the natural world rather than preaching to people. He was concerned with conservation of endangered animals and land clearing leading to loss of habitat. He considered conservation to be the most important part of his work: "I consider myself a wildlife warrior. My mission is to save the world's endangered species."[14] Irwin bought "large tracts of land" in Australia, Vanuatu, Fiji and the United States, which he described as "like national parks" and stressed the importance of people realising that they could each make a difference.[22]

He had urged people to take part in considerate tourism and not support illegal poaching through the purchase of items such as turtle shells or shark-fin soup.[23]

He founded the Steve Irwin Conservation Foundation, which was later renamed Wildlife Warriors Worldwide, and became an independent charity. He was described after his death by the CEO of RSPCA Queensland as a "modern-day Noah," and British naturalist David Bellamy lauded his skills as a natural historian and media performer.[24] Irwin and his father discovered a new species of turtle that now bears his name, Elseya irwini — Irwin's Turtle — a species of turtle found on the coast of Queensland.[25]

He also helped to found a number of other projects, such as the International Crocodile Rescue, as well as the Lyn Irwin Memorial Fund, in memory of his mother (who was in a fatal car crash in 2000), with proceeds going to the Iron Bark Station Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre.

Irwin, however, was criticised for having an unsophisticated view of conservation in Australia that seemed more linked to tourism than to the problems Australia faces as a continent.

In response to questions of Australia's problems with overgrazing, salinity, and erosion, Irwin responded, "Cows have been on our land for so long that Australia has evolved to handle those big animals." The Sydney Morning Herald concluded with the opinion that his message was confusing and amounted to "eating roos and crocs is bad for tourism, and therefore more cruel than eating other animals".[26]

According to Terri, Sir David Attenborough was an inspiration to Irwin. When presenting a Lifetime Achievement Award to Attenborough after Irwin's death at the British National Television Awards on 31 October 2006 Terri stated "If there's one person who directly inspired my husband it's the person being honoured tonight." She went on to say "[Steve's] real, true love was conservation - and the influence of tonight's recipient in preserving the natural world has been immense."[27] Sir David reciprocated with praising Irwin for introducing many to the natural world, saying "He taught them how wonderful and exciting it was, he was a born communicator."[6]

Year Film Role Other notes
1997-2004 The Crocodile Hunter Himself
1999-2000 Croc Files Himself
2001 Dr. Dolittle 2 Himself Cameo role
2002 Mystery Hunters Himself One episode
2002 The Crocodile Hunter: Collision Course Himself
2006 5 Takes: Pacific Rim Himself One Episode
2006 Happy Feet Trev (voice)

Personal life


Terri Raines Irwin, the widow of Steve IrwinIn 1992, Irwin married Terri Raines from Eugene, Oregon, United States. The pair had met a few months earlier, when Terri had visited the zoo on a holiday; according to both of them, it was love at first sight. Terri said at the time, "I thought there was no one like this anywhere in the world. He sounded like an environmental Tarzan, a larger-than-life superhero guy."[28] Although he and Terri were happily married, they did not wear wedding rings; in their line of work, wearing jewelery could pose a hazard to them and/or the animals.[29]Together they had two children: a daughter, Bindi Sue Irwin (born 24 July 1998), and a son, Robert Clarence "Bob" (named after Irwin's father) Irwin (born 1 December 2003). Bindi Sue is jointly named after two of Steve Irwin's favourite animals: Bindi, a saltwater crocodile, and Sui, a Staffordshire Bull Terrier who died in June 2004.

Irwin was as enthusiastic about his family as he was about his work. He once described his daughter Bindi as "the reason [he] was put on the Earth." His wife once said, "The only thing that could ever keep him away from the animals he loves are the people he loves even more."[1]

Terri Irwin recently reported that Steve had an ongoing premonition that he would die before he reached age 40.[30] She wrote about this in her book Steve and Me about their lives together.[31]

A controversial incident occurred during a public show on 2 January 2004, when Irwin carried his one-month-old son, Bob, in his arm while hand-feeding a chicken carcass to Murray, a 3.8-metre (12 ft 6 in) saltwater crocodile. The infant was close to the crocodile, and comparisons were made in the press to Michael Jackson's dangling his son outside a German hotel window.[32] In addition, child welfare groups, animal rights groups, and some of Irwin's television viewers criticised his actions as irresponsible and tantamount to child abuse.[33] Irwin apologised on the US NBC Today Show.[34] Both he and his wife publicly stated that Irwin was in complete control of the situation, as he had dealt with crocodiles since he was a small child, and based on his lifetime of experience neither he nor his son were in any danger. He also showed footage of the event shot from a different angle, demonstrating that they were much further from the crocodile than they had appeared in the publicised clip.[35] Terri Irwin said their child was in no more danger than one being taught to swim. No charges were filed; according to one journalist, Irwin told officials he would not repeat the action. The incident prompted the Queensland government to change its crocodile-handling laws, banning children and untrained adults from entering crocodile enclosures.

In June 2004, allegations were made that he disturbed wildlife (namely whales, seals and penguins) while filming a documentary, Ice Breaker, in Antarctica. The matter was subsequently closed without charges being filed.

MV Steve Irwin approaching Melbourne in February 2008After Irwin's death, the vessel MV Robert Hunter owned by the environmental action group Sea Shepherd was renamed MV Steve Irwin in Steve's honour.[39] Sea Shepherd is a controversial environmentalist group that conducts direct action operations including the sinking of whaling ships to protect marine species and environments. Shortly before his death, Irwin had been investigating joining their 2007/08 voyage to Antarctica to disrupt Japanese whaling activity. Following his death, as an alternative the renaming of the vessel was suggested by Sea Shepherd and endorsed by his widow Terri.

After questions arose about Irwin being paid $175,000 worth of taxpayers' money to appear in a television advertisement and his possible political ties, Irwin told ABC that he was a conservationist and did not choose sides in politics.

His comments describing Australian Prime Minister John Howard as the "greatest leader in the world" earned him scorn in the media.

Search and rescue effort in Mexico
In November 2003, Irwin was filming a documentary on sea lions off the coast of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula when he heard via his boat's radio that two scuba divers were reported missing in the area. Irwin and his entire crew suspended operations to aid in the search. His team's divers searched with the rescue divers, and Irwin used his vessel to patrol the waters around the island where the incident occurred, as well as using his satellite communications system to call in a rescue plane. On the second day of the search, kayakers found one of the divers, Scott Jones, perched on a narrow rock ledge jutting out from the side of a cliff. Irwin and a crewmember escorted him to Irwin's boat. Jones did not recognise his celebrity rescuer, as he had never seen Irwin on television. The other lost diver, Katie Vrooman, was found dead by a search plane later the same day not far from Jones' location.

Sports fan
Having grown up in Essendon, Irwin was a fan of the Essendon Bombers, an Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League.[ Irwin took part in an Australian Rules football promotion in Los Angeles as part of "Australia Week" in early 2006.[After his death, a picture of Irwin wearing a Bombers Guernsey was shown by in their Bottom 10 ranking of the worst Division I FBS college football teams after Week 1 of the season in tribute to him.

Like many Australians, he was a big cricket fan. This was seen during his visit to Sri Lanka where he played cricket with some local kids and saying "I love cricket" and "It's a shame we have to go catch some snakes now". This was seen during the Crocodile Hunter episode “Island of the Snakes".

Living in Queensland most of his life, Irwin was also a fan of rugby league. As a teenager, he played for the Caloundra Sharks as a second-rower, and as an adult he was known to be a passionate Brisbane Broncos fan and was involved with the club on several occasions. On one occasion after turning up to training he asked if he could tackle the largest player, Shane Webcke. Despite being thrown to the ground and looking like he'd been crushed he was jovial about the experience. Irwin laughingly shared the experience with the Queensland State of Origin squad before the 2006 series. Irwin also supported rugby union, being a fan of the national team, the Wallabies. He once wore a Wallaby jersey during a demonstration at the zoo. A behind-the-scenes episode of The Crocodile Hunter showed Irwin and the crew finding a gas station in a remote part of Namibia to watch the Wallabies defeat France in the 1999 Rugby World Cup Final. Irwin was also a talented surfer.

Irwin loved mixed martial arts competitions and trained with Greg Jackson in the fighting/grappling system of Gaidojutsu.

biography of maradona

Diego Armando Maradona was born on October 30, 1960, in Villa Fiorito, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. He was raised in an underprivileged family and spent his adolescence playing football in the streets of his neighborhood.

He made his debut at the age of 16 and throughout his professional career he played 692 official games scoring 352 goals. He played 90 games for the Argentine National Team and scored 33 goals, 8 of them in world cups. He was a five time maximum scorer and got 10 titles with: National Juvenile World Cup (1979), Boca Juniors (1981), Barcelona (Copa del Rey 1983), World Cup (Mexico, 1986), Napoli (Scudetto 1987 and 1990); Italian Cup (1987), UEFA Cup (1989), Italian Supercup (1991) and Artemio Franchi Cup (1993).

His first team was called Estrella Roja (Red Star) and was founded by his father for the neighborhood boys. One of the players was Gregorio "El Goyo" Carrizo, who played in the lower divisions of Argentinos Juniors, and who helped Diego to be part of the team called "Los Cebollitas" (the small onions). With only 14 years of age, he astounded the public at his first game with the team and gained reputation and respect as a player. With "Los Cebollitas" he kept a winning spree of over one hundred games.

At 16 he made his debut in the first division of the club Argentinos Juniors and soon after he scored his first goal against San Lorenzo de Mar del Plata. He played for Argentinos Juniors until 1980, totaling 166 games where he scored 115 goals.

In 1977, he debuted with the Argentine National Team against Hungary and in the 1978 World Cup, Menotti (National Teams' coach) excluded him from the team arguing lack of experience.

In the Juvenile World Cup held in Japan in 1979, Maradona was the captain and the team had an implacable campaign winning the Juvenile World Champion in Tokyo.

Afterwards, Diego signed with the Boca Juniors Athletic Club and played his first game with them in 1981 scoring 2 goals against Talleres de C?rdoba team and the team eventually won the national championship by Diego Armando Maradona's hand.

In 1984 he began to play for the Italian club "Napoli" and debuted at the San Paolo stadium during the Italian Cup where he scored the winning goal. From then on, Diego started a winning spree with Napoli and earned them their first championship (Scudetto) in the history of the club during the '86-'87 season.

In the 1986 World Cup Championship, held in Mexico, the Argentine National Team led by the coach Carlos Bilardo obtained the world's title after defeating Germany 3-2 in the final game.

The most controversial game of the championship was against England where Diego scored two goals. The first one was very questioned by the famous maneuver later called "La Mano de Dios" (God's Hand) where it was argued that Maradona used his hand to score the goal, while the second goal is considered to be the best goal of all the times. Diego took the ball behind the midfield line and after avoiding all the English players who were trying to stop him, he kept going and scored. In the decade of 1990, his reputation and his ability were damaged by his addiction to drugs, which he tried to control in various opportunities, including a detoxification in a clinic in Cuba. In July of 1990, Maradona played his second final in a World Cup, Italy ' 90, where Germany defeated Argentina for 1-0.

Meanwhile, he continued his career in Naples, where he confronted a scandal involving an illegitimate child and was also they tied to the Camora (local Mafia). Maradona left the Napoli team in 1992, after a prohibition of 15 months, for failing drugs controls.

Between 1992 and 1993 he briefly and unsuccesfully played for Spains' Sevilla Team and for Argentina's Newell's Old Boys team.

During 1993, Alfio Basile, the National Teams's coach, included him in the national team's roster and he played during the classifying season leading to the 1994 United States World Cup. In November, 1993, the Argentine team, with Maradona in the leading role, qualified for the Worl d Cup after defeating Australia 1-0 (Batistuta's goal) at River Plate's Stadium in Buenos Aires.

In the game against Nigeria, Maradona reached the record of 21 goals in games disputed in world cups, record previously held by Germany's Uwe Seller and Poland's Wladimierz Zmuda. Argentina won 2-1 and Diego, again, had an excellent performance.

At the end of this match he was selected to take the anti-doping test that turned out to be positive and he was banned from the Championship. Soon after Argentina was eliminated. Upon his return to Argentina, Maradona unsuccessfully tried to work as a coach for two clubs but decided to try again as a player.

In 1995 Diego returned to Boca Juniors with whom he played 29 games scoring 7 goals and on October 25, 1997 he played his last professional game against River Plate where Boca Juniors won 2-1. On November 10, 2001 he had a farewell game played at the Boca Juniors stadium before 60,000 spectators. The game was played between a mixed team or Argentine players and a "Stars" team with international renowned players.

Maradona wore his number "10" shirt for the Argentine National Team and scored 2 penalty goals. Among the guest players were: Francescoli, Riquelme, Stoichkov and the Pibe Valderrama, among others. The game finished 6-3, with goals by Piojo Lopez, Aimar, Maradona and Castrom?n for the Argentine National Team and Suker (Croatia), Canton ? (France) and Higuita (Colombia) scored for the "Stars" team.

The game was a big party and 60,000 people witnessed this emotional day. Before the start of the game, Maradona entered the field with his daughters, Dalma and Giannina and with one of his nephews. The multitude greeted their idol loudly screaming "Diegooooo, Diegooooo" in honor and gratefulness for his career. The event finished like it had begun: with happiness, fireworks, more songs sung by the fans and Diego's tears.

Diego Armando Maradona was one of the best football players of all times.

biography of dylan thomas

Dylan Marlais Thomas was born in Swansea, Wales on October 27, 1914.
The name Dylan comes from the Mabinogion, a collection of 11 mediaeval Welsh tales. The word means "sea". In the tale Math, the son of Mathonwy, challenges Aranrhod, his niece who claims to be a virgin, to step over his magic wand.
"Aranrhod stepped over the wand, and with that step she dropped a sturdy boy with thick yellow hair; the boy gave a loud cry, and with that cry she made her way for the door.....
"Well," said Math, "I will arrange for the baptism of this one......and I will call him Dylan."
The boy was baptized, whereupon he immediately made for the sea, and when he came to the sea he took on its nature and swam as well as the best fish. He was called Dylan (sea) son of Ton (wave), for no wave ever broke beneath him."
Marlais is the name of a stream which runs from the hills near the birthplace of Dylan Thomas' great uncle Gwilym Marles Thomas. Marles is a variation of the name Marlais. Dylan Thomas' sister Nancy also bore a variation of the name Marles.
In November 1934 he moved to London and on the 18th December of that year his first book of poetry, Eighteen Poems appeared to critical acclaim. Dylan Thomas had just turned 20 when this volume of poetry was released. He had written nearly 30 poems in late 1933 and early 1934, of which 13 were published in this volume. Between May and October 1934, he completed another five for inclusion in the book. Dylan Thomas was an incredibly conscientious wordsmith, as shown by this description by his long-time friend Vernon Watkins:
"....the composition of his poetry, for which he used separate work sheets and would spend sometimes several days on a single line, while the poem was built up phrase by phrase, at glacier like speed."
(Vernon Watkins, Adventures in the Skin Trade, introduction)
In April of 1936 he met Caitlin MacNamara, and in September his second volume of poetry Twenty-five Poems was released. In July 1937 Dylan and Caitlin were married and in 1938, they moved to Laugharne, Wales.
Their first child, Llewelyn Edouard Thomas was born in January 1939. The Map of Love was published in August 1939 and The World I Breathe was published in December 1939, in the United States.
In April 1940 Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog was published and in September, Dylan began working for Strand Films which he continued for the duration of World War II.
His second child Aeronwyn Bryn Thomas was born in March 1943. Deaths and Entrances was published in 1946. In 1949 his third child, Colm Garan Hart Thomas was born. In 1952, Collected Poems, 1934-1952 became the last book published in his life time. He also published many short stories, wrote filmscripts, broadcast stories and talks, did a series of lecture tours in the United States and wrote Under Milkwood, the radio play.
During his fourth lecture tour of the United States in 1953, (which he made under a doctor's care) and a few days after his 39th birthday, he collapsed in his New York City hotel. He died on November 9th, 1953 at St Vincents Hospital, in New York City. His body was sent back to Laugharne, Wales, where his grave is marked by a simple wooden cross.
His unfinished novel, Adventures in the Skin Trade, was originally rejected by his London publisher for not being "the great, serious autobiographical work to which they had looked forward so long." The novel itself is the incredibly funny story of a young man, Samuel Bennet, who moves to London, after metaphorically (and nearly literally) burning his bridges behind him. In the few extant chapters, Samuel gets involved in a series of inextricable situations, beginning with getting a finger permanently stuck inside of a Bass Ale bottle. The title, in typically Dylan Thomas fashion refers, of course, to the young man's trading one life for another, a metaphoric trading of skins. In correspondence with Vernon Watkins, he describes the work-in-progress as:
"It's a mixture of Oliver Twist, Little Dorrit, Kafka, Beachcomber, and good old 3-adjectives-a-penny belly-churning Thomas, the Rimbaud of Cwmdonkin Drive."
In July 1994, his wife, Caitlin Thomas died in Italy, where she had spent most of the years of her life after the death of her husband.
Dylan Thomas, often described as a "classic Welsh writer", never actually learned the Welsh language himself. Though he achieved much notoriety during his short life, he received little financial gain. It was only after his death that his work truly began to be appreciated. There is no doubt, however, that he is one of the great English (language) poets of the twentieth century, arguably the greatest poet of our time. Dylan Thomas' incredible use of metaphor, meter, and a comic wit, allows his work to stand alone, balancing a reckless neo-Romantic sensuality against the more staid Puritanism of his time and culture. Thomas' lust for life and love of drink may well have contributed to his premature demise, yet his work remains, a testament to both his skill and mastery of The Word. The work of Dylan Thomas has been ingrained into our modern psyche in countless ways, ranging from a surprisingly stirring recital of "Do not go gentle into that good night" by none other than Rodney Dangerfield in the 1986 movie Back To School (in itself proof of the poet's powerfully enduring skill) to a more highbrow choral symphony based on three of his poems.